Traditionally known as “hash” by long-time cannabis users, historical forms of concentrates have taken a backseat to solvent-based extraction techniques that strip the essential oils of a cannabis plant using chemicals, heat, and pressure.
Water hash is a production technique that uses dried or fresh-frozen plant material mixed with cold water and ice, then agitated through manual or mechanical means to remove trichome heads. The result is filtered through special screens and can achieve potentency between 50-80% THC.
Butane Hash Oil
The most common cannabis extraction technique used today, butane concentrates are created by pressurizing butane and washing it over dried or fresh-frozen plant material. The solvents are then removed using heat and vacuum, resulting in THC levels between 60-90% THC.
Using compressed carbon dioxide at high pressures, this method strips essential oils from cannabis plants and produces an orange-tinted oil that tests between 50-75% THC.
Rosin is extracted from dried buds, trimmings, or lower grade concentrates like water hash or kief. Once the essential oils are extracted, the result is an oil-like extract similar in appearance to higher-quality water hash or solvent-extracted concentrates with a similar THC content.
Kief is among the most straightforward and simple forms of concentrates and consists of the trichomes at the outside surface of a cannabis flower. Using specialized removal screens and manual labor, the crystalline coating is removed from the dried plant. High-end extractors can produce kief concentrates ranging in THC content from 20-60% depending on a variety of factors.